In Persian language, there are three main tenses:
- Present tense (حال) – used to indicate actions that are currently happening or are generally true.
- Simple present tense: expresses habitual or repeated actions. Example: من هر روز صبح به پارک میروم. (I go to the park every morning.)
- Present continuous tense: expresses actions that are in progress at the moment of speaking. Example: من دارم به دانشگاه میرم. (I am going to the university.)
- Past tense (گذشته) – used to describe actions that have already happened.
- Simple past tense: expresses completed actions in the past. Example: من دیشب خوابیدم. (I slept last night.)
- Past continuous tense: expresses an action that was happening in the past when another event occurred. Example: من داشتم درس میخواندم که دوستم زنگ زد. (I was studying when my friend called.)
- Future tense (آینده) – used to indicate actions that have not yet occurred but will happen in the future.
- Simple future tense: expresses an action that will happen in the future. Example: من فردا به شهر میروم. (I will go to the city tomorrow.)
- Future continuous tense: expresses an action that will be in progress at a particular time in the future. Example: من در ساعت ۸ صبح فردا دارم با دوستم قرار میگذارم. (I will be meeting my friend at 8 a.m. tomorrow.)
In addition to these tenses, Persian has some other forms such as present perfect, past perfect, and future perfect that are used to describe completed actions or events that happened before another action or event. These forms are made up of the auxiliary verb “بودن” (to be) and the past participle of the main verb. The subjunctive mood is also used to express doubt, desire, or uncertainty about something.